Selection of sex of offspring in livestock depends on the economic importance and utilization of species. In India male bull calves are preferred for use in agricultural operations. With increased mechanization of agricultural operations, there is minimum requirement of these males. In dairy industry, female calves are preffered over males and with the development of techniques like AI large number of females cab be inseminated with semen from limited number of bulls. Sex selection techniques are now quite useful in selecting sex of young ones in economically important livestock species. Sexing of embryos can be done with PCR technique by taking biopsy of few cells from embryos and using a pair of cattle specific BRY1 primers for amplification of male specific fragment on buffalo Y Chromosome. The assay can be performed in less than 4h and embryonic sex can be determined accurately using only 1-2 blastomeres.

Calves of desired sex can be produced by inseminating animals with pre-sexed semen. Separation of male and female spermatozoa can be done by cell sorter using weight difference in male and female i.e. X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa. Fetal sex determination can also be done with noninvasive technique of ultrasonography around day 55 of gestation in buffaloes.