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   Recommendations for buffalo management at different temperature and humidity levels

 

Ambient

Temperature (oC)

Humidity

(%)

Feeding management / supplementations

Housing

management

Other management practices

0-10

 
  • Edible oil/fat (e.g. mustard oil- up to 2% of dietary dry matter);  
  • Molasses (5-10% of concentrate);
  • Green fodder and sufficient ad lib. dry fodder;  
  • Feeding at regular interval; feed should also be offered at late evening ;
  •  Luke warm drinking water.  
  • Curtain covers;  
  • Hot air blowers/ radiators;
  • Dry bedding.  
  • Covering animals back with empty gunny bags/ blanket.   

10-20

 
  • Green and dry fodder as per nutrient need; Additional supplementation of 10% concentrate to ward off cold stress;  
  • Feeding at regular interval (3-4 times daily);
  • Fresh and clean drinking water for 24 hours.  
  • Dry bedding.  
  • Wallowing or water splashing during hot period of day.  

20-30

 
  • Normal feeding with sufficient green fodder, dry fodder and concentrate as per nutrient need.  
  • No modification required.  
  • Wallowing once daily or water splashing once during hot period of day.  

30-40

Up-to 60

  • Niacin- 6 to 10 g, yeast- 10 g, edible oil/fat (e.g. mustard oil) up to 2% of dietary dry matter;  
  • Buffer (sodium / potassium bicarbonate up to 0.8% of diet dry matter)  or Antacids (magnesium oxide-up to 0.3% of diet dry matter);
  • Bypass protein (e.g. cotton seed cake maximum 25% of concentrate);    
  • Molasses (5-10% of concentrate),
  • Partially mixed wet ration (sanni) but moisture content should not exceed 50% in total ration;   
  • Succulent fodder,
  • Increased frequency of feeding;  
  • Feeding major part of ration during early morning (6-8 AM) and night (8-10 PM);
  • Cold drinking water ad. lib.  
  • Curtain  cover;  
  • Fogger /mist fans;
  • Ceiling fans.  
  • Wallowing at least twice daily or water sprinkling during hot period of day.  

>60

  • Feeding same as indicated for temperature 30-40 degree Celsius and humidity <60%  
  • Ceiling fans and exhaust fans.  
  • Wallowing at least twice daily.  

Above 40

Up-to 60

  • Feeding same as indicated for temperature 30-40 degree Celsius   
  • Curtain cover   
  • Fogger /mist fans and ceiling fans.
  • Wallowing or water splashing at least twice daily during hot period of day.  

>60

  • Feeding same as indicated for temperature 30-40 degree Celsius   
  • Ceiling fans and exhaust fan.  
  • Wallowing at least twice daily.  

Contributors: K.S.Das, G.Singh, J.K.Singh and R. Malik