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Transgenic 

First transgenic livestock was produced in 1985 using microinjection of foreign DNA into pronucleus of Zygote. This technique is having many inherent shortcomings like low efficiency and random integration into host genome. Various alternative new methods are sperm medicated DNA transfer, ICSI of sperm heads carrying foreign DNA, inserting viral vector in oocytes or embryo and use of nuclear transfer. Further development include use of large genomic construction to optimize expression, application of RNA interference to knock down specific genes.

Numerous proteins have been produced in large amounts in the mammary gland of transgenic sheep, goat, cattle, pig and rabbit. Trials on antithrombin|||(AT|||) productionin mammary gland of transgenic goat have been completed and the recombinant product has been approved as a drug by European Medicines Agency in August 2006. Successful drug registration of AT||| demonstrates the usefulness and solidity of this approach and will accelerate the registration of further products from this process. Other recombinant proteins from the udder are alfa-antitrypsin and tissue plasminogen activator. To ensure safety of recombinant products guidelines developed by Food and Drug Administration of USA require monitoring animals’ health, valditation of the gene construct characterization of isolated protein, as well performance of transgenic animals over years.

 The biotechnologies applied in buffalo reproduction are restricted so far to AI, with very few attempts in ET, IVF and sexing technologies. Actually application of such technologies to buffalo reproduction requires addiotional basic research to understand low success rate. Superovulation and embryo transfer, though less successful, but can be applied at least in bull production. In vitro embryo production rate has improved significantly and in vitro fertilization can be used to test the fertility of bulls. Freezing of embryos is successgful and oocytes freezing is in progress and comparable with other species. There is scope for working on stem cell, somatic cell and multiple generation cloning. When the procedures become more efficient the possibility exists for incorporation of embryonic stem cells as donor nuclei. Developmental potentional of embryonic stem cells needs to be studied. These biotechnologies in the buffalo offer an enormous opportunity for genetic gain, as well as increased efficiency of food production for both vegetarian and non- vegetarian population.