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Cryopreservation of living cells dates back to 1776 when Lazzaro Spallanzani froze stallion sperm cells. During ensuing years, live offsprings from previously frozen embryos were produced in cows, buffaloes, rabbits, sheep, rats, hores, antelopes and baboons. Use of superior gamets is critical for animal improvement and development programs. Livestock gametes technologies include production, preservation and utilization of gamets viz. semen, oocytes and embryos from individuals with desired traits for faster multiplication and conservation of rare germplasm.


                                    Video on cryopreservation of Buffalo Bull Semen

Ø    Semen Freezing: use of frozen semen for A.I. is well established technique for livestock improvement. Buffalo semen can be frozen well if motile spermatozoa are more than fifty percent. The conditions for transport and maintenance of frozen semen in field need to be improved. Well-equipped field staff can be definitely made an impact of this technique in improving the buffalo productivity.

Ø     Oocytes Freezing : Continuous availability of viable developmentally competent oocytes is critical for progress of in vitro embryo production and related biotechniques. Hence, feezing of unfertilized oocytes generate a readily available source for their use on requirement. Since oocytes are single cell therefore, any damage may prevent their development into healthy embryos. The freezing of oocytes is more tricky and difficult than embryo or semen.

Ø      Embryo freezing: The technique of embryo freezing is better established than oocytes freezing. However, it also needs refinement for getting better pregnancy rates following thawing and transfer to recipients as per requirement, thus avoiding the need for estrus synchronization. Embryo freezing makes it easy to transport quality germplasm throughout world. Embryo transfer is a technique of choice for cattle breeding in some countries but in buffaloes this also needs dedication and high quality infrastructure to take advantage of this technique.