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Retained Placenta

Retention of fetal membranes, also called as retention of placenta incidence, is high in buffaloes 1.2-33.8% when compared to cattle 2.3-11%. It is the major parturient problem in cattle and buffaloes. The condition occurs when the normal process of dehiscence and expulsion fail to take place. Normally fetal membrane are expelled within 3-8 h post calving owing to hormonal and mechanical factors during the third stage of labor, however if animals fail to do so upto 12 h, then it is a case of retention of  fetal membranes. It denote the failure of fetal villi to separate from the maternal crypts due to placental dehiscence and the aetiological factors viz., parturitions occurring much earlier   than the expected date like abortion, stillbirth, dystocia, premature birth, twin birth, seasonal factors, imbalance/deficiency of vitamin A, minerals, uterine inertia, genital infections, chronic wasting diseases, placentitis, disease like brucellosis, vibrosis and moulds (Jadon, 2005)

Treatment includes manual removal of fetal membranes but eventually leads to uterine infections followed by poor uterine involution and onset of cyclicity is delayed. Hormonal therapy with PGF2α reduces incidence. Oxytocin therapy increases uterine motility. High doses create contraction & uterine spasms. Estrogen relaxes cervix, but does not stimulates immune reaction or improve system and uterine reproductive performance. Use of appropriate antibiotics is favored but it should not have residues in the milk. The use of collagenase is also advised to treat retention of fetal membranes.