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Difficulty in parturition is called as dystocia. The causes of dystocia are fetal and maternal causes or both.  Dystocia is caused by fetal abnormalities and mal-presentations among the maternal causes poor body condition and uterine torsion leads to dystocia.  Incidence of dystocia in buffaloes is 0.70-6.3%. Uterine torsion is defined as the revolution or twisting of the uterus on its long axis. In cows and buffaloes the gravid horn is in the shape of U or an arc and torsion involves rotation of the arc on transverse axis uterine torsions of 45-90 degrees are frequent and may show no symptoms. Torsion of 180° shows more colicy symptoms of anorexia, constipation, lack of rumination, rapid pulse and abdominal pain. Incidence of uterine torsion in buffaloes is high 7.5-13.5% when compared to cattle 0.7-2.8% and crossbred 0.1-3.4%. The incidence of pre-cervical clock wise torsion in cows is high. Accurate diagnosis of uterine torsion may be made by vaginal and rectal examination of uterus, broad ligament, vagina and this reveals the type of torsion.

The most common treatment methods for the correction of uterine torsions in buffaloes are mutational procedures, fetotomy, forced extraction and cesarean section. Main causes of high incidence of uterine torsion in buffaloes are various factors such as wallowing, slipping etc. The usual method of correction is by following a detorsion rod or by Schaffer’s method.   Surgical correction is also indicated when the cervix has undergone secondary constriction after prolonged dystocia with an emphysematous fetus present, uterine rupture has occurred, or in multiparous animals. Surgical correction by laparotomy is similar to that of a C-section.  Prognosis is considered good for mother and calf, if treated early.  Prognosis also depends on the severity of the torsion and the severity of the symptoms. In severe cases, edema may develop due to venous congestion from circulatory disturbances to the uterus. Unfortunately the incidence of uterine rupture is fairly high in cases of uterine torsion.  Torsions of 180˚-270˚ are considered to have a slightly poorer prognosis than torsions of less severity. Buffalo cows suffer from metritis, perimetritis and delayed conception following uterine torsion.

The incidence of other buffalo reproductive disorders contributing to infertility:

  • Cystic ovarian degeneration (COD) :

Ø  Follicular cyst :         1.26-3.4%

Ø  Luteal cyst     :        0.66- 12.50%  

  • Oophoritis                         :        48-3.82%  
  • Ovario-bursal adhesions     :        15.4-20.32%  
  • Salpingitis                         :        0.28-10.52%    
  • Pyometra                          :        0.28-32.02%  
  • Cervicitis                           :        0.28-10.52%   
  • Vaginitis                            :        0.18-4.32%   
  • Prolapse                                   2.5-19.50%  

  • Congenital anatomical disorders are <1% in buffaloes.