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Abortions

Abortion is the expulsion, before full term, of a conceptus incapable of independent life. The cause of abortion other than infection includes genetic, nutritional, thermal, toxic and traumatic factors. Stillbirth is the delivery of a dead calf at full term. These pregnancy losses are approximately 5-10 % in normal herds.  Incidence of abortion in buffaloes is 7.5-10.5%.

Causes:

Infectious causes:

Ø  General infections with high fever

Ø  Specific infections such as brucellosis, leptospirosis, listerisis, TB, vibriosis, trichomoniasis, IBR-IPV, FMD, bluetongue, BVD, aspergillosis, toxoplasmosis, babesias. 

The incidence of infectious causes are brucellosis 4-10 %, vibriosis <0.5%, trichomonisis 11-28 %, IBR 14-27%, and Mycosis 5% of reported aborted cases.

Non-infectious causes:

Ø  Genetic

Ø  Environmental: temperature

Ø  Nutritional : phytotoxins including mycotoxins

Ø  Iatrogenic: administration of abortifacient drugs.

Nutritional deficiency of iodine, vitamin A also causes abortion 

Preventive measures:

  • Proper hygienic and biosecurity measures in the animal's environment and feed storage
  • Isolation of aborting cows and immediate removal of aborted materials
  • Systematic evaluation of the feed for mycotoxins and other phytotoxins
  • Adequate immunization against infectious diseases causing abortion
  • Maintenance of adequate breeding and treatment records to avoid insemination of pregnant animals and administration of drugs that may cause abortion to pregnant animal

Contributed by Indrajeet Singh, Jerome A and A.K Balhara