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Repeat breeding

A repeat breeder is generally defined as any buffalo that has not conceived after three or more services associated with true estrus. A repeat breeding animal has normal or nearly normal estrus; estrus cycles as well as reproductive tract and though has been bred three or more times by fertile bull semen but had failed to conceive.

The cause of repeat breeding are

  • Fertilization failure
  • Anovulation and delayed ovulation
  • Tubal obstruction
  • Early or latent embryonic mortalities
  • Deficiency of oxytocin
  • Deficiency of energy
  • Deficiency of progesterone
  • Excess estrogen
  • Poor breeding and management techniques
  • genetic, nutritional and infections.

Incidence of repeat breeding buffaloes is 0.61-29.8%. The incidence varies with breed, farm, agro-climatic and managemental conditions.  Incidence of repeat breeding  has been found higher in older and higher milk producing dairy animals . Stress of milk production interfere in the synthesis and release of gonadotrophins leading to repeat breeding. Different species of bacteria are responsible for repeat breeding are Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacilli, Cornyebacterium, E. coli, Proteus.

Incidence of Repeat Breeding in buffaloes reported in different states

State

Incidence (%)

Haryana

4.57-7.67

Punjab

28.84

Gujarat

6.35

Tamilnadu

4.03

Madhya Pradesh

0.61

Andhra Pradesh

29.80

Punjab

12.30

Bihar

55.40

                                                                                                              (Khan et al. 2009)

Therapeutic strategies for Repeat Breeding

Anovulatory heat and delayed ovulation

In anovulation, ovulation will not be evident and hence no CL will be felt on days of examination. Hormonal therapy includes hCG or LH preparations 1500 to 3000 IU I/V on the day of AI or GnRH i.e. Receptal or Fertagyl 500 mcg I/M on the day of AI. Proluton depot 250 mg I/M at AI and 25% Dextrose 400 ml I/V + Inj. Vitamin C 200 mg on 5th and 17th can also be tried. Other treatment include Copper glycinate 10 ml. I/M on the day of AI as well as feeding carotene daily 400-600 mg/day per animal. Feeding of homeopathy drugs such as Aurun Iodum, Thyroidinum, Aguns castus 10 pills of each, 3 times a day  for 10 days may be beneficial. Feeding of chelated mineral supplement daily especially containing Iodine, phosphorus, and manganese is recommended.

Tubal Blockage

It is possible to diagnose the tubal blockage on careful per-rectal palpation. Blockage can be diagnosed by injecting 10 ml of   0.1% Phenol red sol. intra-uterine in one horn preferably at the tip of the horn.

contributed by Indrajeet Singh and Jerome A