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Early Embryonic Mortality

This is a very common reason of RB. Under our managemental conditions, the main causes are  endometritis, too early or too late AI, High environmental temperature, Nutritional status of animal i.e. low energy diet, low protein diet, Mineral & vitamin deficiencies and Hormonal imbalance. It is advised to use antibiotic by systemic route on day 3rd of AI and on day 10th after AI in case of endometritis

In case of LH hormonal deficiency it is also advised to inject 1500 –3000 IU,  hCG / LH on the day of AI to produce large size CL. Insemination should be done at the end of heat and not too early or late i.e. follow AM / PM thumb rule. In oxytocin deficiency, animal passes large quantity of urine when examined P/R. Give 50 IU of oxytocin I/M, after AI. Atonicity may also be due to high progesterone content, since the CL may not have regressed totally. This condition cannot be diagnosed in field condition except examination of CL size on 8th to 10th day of cycle for hypoluteal condition, but not at the time of AI. In this condition 2000 mg of Vitamin. C, I/V along with 400 ml of 25% Dextrose, after AI. 1500 IU HCG /LH on the day of AI, I/V and on 14th to 16th day post estrous will be beneficial. Recently COX-2 inhibitors have been on 15th to 17th day post AI t o reduce the incidence of embryonic mortality due to luteal regression with 80% success rate.

Feeding and shelter management

Animal should be fed crushed maize ½ kg well soaked daily for 60 days or germinated grains during period post insemination. Chelated mineral supplements should be provided for better conception rate. Positive protein energy balance should be maintained for better conception rate. Excess energy or protein disrupts the uterine environment and causes embryonic mortality and repeat breeding. Negative effect of feed deficiency of B-carotene and vitamin E causes silent heat, delayed ovulation, follicular and luteal cysts and early embryonic mortality. Well ventilated byres or keeping animals in tree shadows in hot times, sprinkling of water on body of animals , wallowing buffaloes to wallow and availability of ample & fresh drinking water at all the times will take care of the problem. During transporting of the estrous animal for AI leads to stress due to buffaloes around the onset of LH surge causing subnormal LH and leads to anovulatory infertility. It is better to make the animal take rest for 30 minutes before AI. As far as possible, avoid transporting animal, instead call vet at home.