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The hill buffalo of Nepal, named Parkote buffaloes, are the typical buffalo of the mid-hills and river valleys. However, due to the traditional practice of crossbreeding with Lime buffalo as well as recent crossbreeding with Indian Murrah, their population in pure form is now declining. At present the pure bred population is estimated at only 25 percent of the indigenous population in the hills and mountains of Nepal.

Population size: 500 000



The Parkote are dark in coat colour and of medium-built body size, with sword-shaped horns directed laterally or towards the back. Black skin, black muzzle, black eyebrows. Usually they have no markings on the legs.


The breed is raised in the mountains, high hills and hill river valleys of Nepal.

Height at withers of adult female is 114 cm.

Body weight is 410 kg.


Mainly raised under migratory conditions or semi-stall systems. The breed is a voracious eater and is fed only low quality feedstuff such as rice, wheat and millet straw. Small farmers exchange breeding animals within and between villages. Among the migratory herds, male and females are grazed together and mated freely during the breeding season from June to November. Females are legally banned from slaughter; only culled animals are slaughtered for meat.

Dairy performance:

Lactation duration : 351 days

Milk yield : 875 kg

Milk fat : 7.0 percent

Products: milk, ghee, meat, swiss-cheese, yoghurt, leather.

Sources: Rasali, 1997; Rasali, 1998a,b.